Looking up Esplanadinpuisto from near the East Harbour / Helsinki / 8 Jan 2016

Looking up Esplanadinpuisto from near the East Harbour / Helsinki / 8 Jan 2016



Auranjoki frozen over / Turku / 22 Jan 2016

Auranjoki frozen over / Turku / 22 Jan 2016


My reading for this project was exhaustive and continual. My primary goal was to assemble a cross section of research around topics of Finland and Finnish history, civic education and schools, multiple and intersectional identity, multiculturalism and immigration, and general European studies.

Although my specialty is in dealing with philosophy and critical theory, I attempted to refrain from developing a framework for critique and editorializing on the research. My desire was to assemble a broad swath of findings and develop a texture of research from that.

Additionally, while I consulted many essential and foundational texts, I did my best to avoid using them, at least explicitly in the final product, to avoid letting them cast a long shadow. Instead, I opted for secondary sources where possible, surveys of the literature, and regional studies – mostly Scandinavian, Nordic, and Easter European. In the end, this section reflects the research I did that made it past the initial culling stages and was involved in some way in the final product.

Finally, this list is neither static nor comprehensive. Until the day these materials were posted online, new research appeared, prompting new questions I’d wished I’d asked. Any suggestions on further research or reading would be welcome.

Buoy and horizon / Gulf of Finland (Tallinn-Helsinki route) / 30 Mar 2016

Buoy and horizon / Gulf of Finland (Tallinn-Helsinki route) / 30 Mar 2016


Ahmed, Sara, On Being Included. Duke: Duke UP, 2012.

Alapuro, Risto. “Finland, Thrown out into the World Alone.” Scandinavian Studies 64.4 (Fall 1992): 699-708.

Alcoff, Linda Martin. “Philosophy and Racial Identity.” Philosophy Today 41:1-4 (1997):67–76.

Alviar-Martin, Theresa. “Reconciling Multiple Conceptions of Citizenship: International School Teachers' Beliefs and Practice.” The Journal of Education 191.3. Early Career Scholars (2010-2011) 39-49. PDF file.

Armstrong, Karen, “Ambiguity and Remembrance: Individual and Collective Memory in Finland.” American Ethnologist 27.3 (2000): 591-608.

Árnason, Jóhann Páll and Björn Wittrock, eds., Nordic Paths to Modernity. New York: Berghahn Books, 2012.

Arts, Will and Loek Halman. “National Identity in Europe Today: What the People Feel and Think.” International Journal of Sociology 35.4 (2005/2006): 69-93.

Banks, James A. “Diversity, Group Identity, and Citizenship Education in a Global Age.” Educational Researcher 37.3 (2008): 129-139.

Barnett, Elizabeth and Michele Casper. “A Definition of ‘Social Environment.’” American Journal of Public Health 91.3 (2001): 465. Web. 5 May 2015.

Brewer, Marilynn B. “The Many Faces of Social Identity: Implications for Political Psychology.” Political Psychology 22.1 (2001): 115-125.

Brubaker, R. and F. Cooper. "Beyond 'Identity.'" Theory and Society 29 (2000): 1–4.

Calhoun, Craig. “Social Theory and the Politics of Identity,” in Social Theory and the Politics of Identity. Craig Calhoun, ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.

-----. “Imagining Solidarity: Cosmopolitanism, Constitutional Patriotism, and the Public Sphere.” Public Culture 14.1 (2002): 147-171.

Choi, Amy. “What the Best Education Systems are Doing Right.” 9 April 2014. Web. 30 April 2015.

CIMO. Finnish Education in a Nutshell. Kopijyva: Ministry of Education and Culture, and the Finnish National Board of Education. 2012. PDF file.

Cocq, Coppélie. “From the Árran to the Internet: Sami Storytelling in Digital Environments.” Oral Tradition 28.1 (2013). Web. 20 July 2015.

Common Core Curriculum Maps in English Language Arts, Grades 9-12. San Francisco: Wiley, 2012.

“Common Core State Standards Initiative.” Common Core. 2014. Web. 5 May 2015.

Cooper, Terry L. “Civic Engagement in the Twenty-First Century: Toward a Scholarly and Practical Agenda.” Public Administration Review 65.5 (2005): 534-535.

Costa, M. Victoria. “Justice as Fairness, Civic Identity, and Patriotic Education.” Public Affairs Quarterly 23.2 (2009): 95-114. PDF file.

Coulby, David and Crispin Jones. “Post-Modernity, Education, and European Identities.” Comparative Education spec. number (18): Comparative Education and Post-Modernity 32.2 (1996): 171-184. PDF file.

Crenshaw, Kimberle. “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence Against Women of Color.” Stanford Law Review 43.1241 (1991): 1241-1299. PDF file.

Dewey, John. Experience & Education. New York: Touchstone, 1997.

Dutton, Edward. “Latent Social Class Terms and Consumer Culture in Finland: ‘Porvari,’ ‘Amis,’ and ‘Pummi.’” Arctic Anthropology 47.1 (2010): 94-108.

-----. The Finnuit. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 2009.

Eränpalo, Tommi. “Exploring Young People’s Civic Identities Through Gamification: a case study of Finnish, Swedish, and Norwegian adolescents playing a social simulation game.” Citizenship, Social and Economics Education 13.2 (2014): 104-120.

Eränpalo, Tommi and Tiina Karhuvirta. “How to Make a Better World – A Study of Adolescent Deliberations in a Problem-Solving Simulation.” Nordidactica 2 (2012): 54-83

Etto, Jorma. Ajastaikaa. Porvoo: Söderström, 1964.

Ferguson, Kennan. “How Peoples Get Made: Race, Performance, Judgment.” Theory & Event 1.3 (1997). Web. 20 July 2015.

Ferguson, Michael L. “Sharing without Knowing: Collective Identity in Feminist and Democratic Theory.” Hypatia 22.4. Democratic Theory (2007): 30-45. PDF file.

Ferguson, Roderick. Aberrations in Black. Minneapolis: Minnesota UP, 2004.

---, The Reorder of Things. Minneapolis: Minnesota UP, 2012.

Friere, Paulo, Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Bloomsbury, 2000.

Gissler, Mika and Mika Vuorki. “Social Quality in Finland.” The European Journal ofSocial Quality 5.1-2. Indicators ofSocial Quality: Applications in Fourteen European Countries (2005): 67-85. PDF file.

Giroux, Henry A. “National Identity and the Politics of Multiculturalism.” College Literature 22.2 (1995): 42-57.

Giroux, Susan Searls. “Race, Rhetoric, and the Contest over Civic Education.” JAC 20.2 (2000): 311-348. PDF file.

Glasser, William, The Quality School. New York: HarperCollins, 1990.

Gross-Loh, Christine. “Finnish Education Chief: ‘We Created a School System Based on Equality.’” Interview with Krista Kiuru. The Atlantic 17 Mar 2014. Web 23 April 2015.

Häkli, Jouni. “Cultures of Demarcation: Territory and National Identity in Finland,” in Nested Identities: Nationalism, Territory, and Scale. Eds. Guntram Henrik Herb and David Kaplan. Oxford: Rowan & Littlefield, 1999.

Hansen, Petteri and Jukka Rantala. “The Challenge of Developing Civic Activity Instruction in Finnish Teacher Education: a review of the results of the citizenship and civic activity project for teacher training.” Citizenship, Social and Economics Education. 8.2-3 (2009):144-151.

Heilman, Elizabeth E. “Critical, Liberal, and Poststructural Challenges for Global Education.” Social Studies—THE NEXT GENERATION: Re-searching in the Postmodern. Spec. issue of Counterpoints 472 (2006): 189-208.

Huddy, Leonie. “From Social to Political Identity: A Critical Examination of Social Identity Theory.”  Political Psychology 22.1 (2001): 127-156.

Hannum, Hurst. Autonomy, Sovereignty, and Self-Determination: The Accommodation of Conflicting Rights. Pittsburgh: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.

Hutchinson, Darren. “The Performance of Pluralism and the Practice of Theory (For Richard Rorty).” The Pluralist 9.2 (Summer 2014): 103-129.

hooks, bell, Teaching to Transgress. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Jennings, Jeremy. “Citizenship, Republicanism, and Multiculturalism in Contemporary France.” British Journal of Political Science 30.4 (2000): 575-597.

Jones, F.L. and Philip Smith. “Individual and Societal Bases of National Identity: A Comparative Multi-Level Analysis.” European Sociological Review 17.2 (2001): 103-118. PDF file.

Kahne, Joseph E and Susan E. Sporte. “Developing Citizens: The Impact of Civic Learning Opportunities on Students' Commitment to Civic Participation.” American Educational Research Journal 45.3 (2008): 738-766.

Kimonen, Eija, ed. Readings and Activities for Educational Studies: Curriculum Approaches. Jyväskylä: University Printing House, 2001. Print.

Kinnes, Tormod. Finnish Fairy Tales. The Gold Scales. 2015. Web. 30 July 2015. <>.

Krizsan, Andrea, Hege Skjeie, and Judith Squires, Institutionalizing Intersectionality: The Changing Nature of European Equality Regimes. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

Kuisma, Markku and Karl-Erik Michelson. “Nationalism and Industrial Development in Finland.” Business and Economics History. Presented at thirty-eighth annual meeting of the Business History Conference. 21 (1992): 343-353. PDF file.

Kukathas, Chandran. “Are There Any Cultural Rights?” Political Theory 20.1 (1992): 105-139.

Kupiainen, Sirkku, Jarkko Hautamäki, and Tommi Karjalainen. The Finnish Education System and PISA. Helsinki: Ministry of Education Publications, 2009. PDF file.

Kurki, Tuulikki. “ From Soviet Locality to Multivoiced Borderland: Literature and Identity in the Finnish-Russian National Borderlands.” Region: Regional Studies of Russia, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia 2.1 (2013): 95-112.

Kwak, Mary. “Finland: Between East and West.” Harvard International Review 6.5 (1984): 35-37.

Laden, Simon and David Owen, eds. Multiculturalism and Political Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2007. PDF file.

Laitinen, Kai and Philip Binham. “Finland and World Literature.” World Literature Today 57.3 (Summer 1983): 393-398.

Lister, Ruth. “A Nordic Nirvana?: Gender, Citizenship, and Social Justice in the Nordic Welfare States.” Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society 16.2 (2009): 242-278.

Löfström, Jan, Arja Virta, and Marko van den Berg. “Who Actually Sets the Criteria for Social Studies Literacy? The National Core Curricula and the Matriculation Examination as Guidelines for Social Studies Teaching in Finland in the 2000’s.” Journal of Social Science Education 9.4 (2010): 1-9.

Lowenstein, Ethan. “Navigating teaching tensions for civic learning.” Learning and Teaching 3.1 (2010): 32-50.

Luedtke, Adam. “European Integration, Public Opinion and Immigration Policy: Testing the Impact of National Identity.” European Union Politics 6.1 (2003): 83-112.

McLaren, Peter, Life in Schools: An Introduction to Critical Pedagogy in the Foundations of Education. New York: Pearson, 2006.

Mead, W. R. “Finland in a Changing Europe.” The Geographical Journal 157.3 (1991): 307-315.

Meinander, Henrik, History of Finland. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2014.

Mosher, Michael A. “Civic Identity in the Juridical Society: On Hegelianism as Discipline for the Romantic Mind.” Political Theory 11.1 (1983): 117-132.

Müller-Wille, Ludger. “Cultural Identity among Sami and Inuit: Issues of ethnic groups and boundaries.” Etudes/Inuit/Studies 25.1/2 (2001): 285-294.

Müller-Wille, Ludger. “The ‘Lappish Movement’ and ‘Lappish Affairs’ in Finland and Their Relations to Nordic and International Ethnic Politics.” Arctic and Alpine Research 9.3 (1977): 235-247. PDF file.

Noddings, Nel, Philosophy of Education. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2012.

Norris, Pippa. “Global Communications and Cultural Identities.” The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 4.4 (1999): 1-7.

Passi, Anssi. “Geographical Perspectives on Finnish National Identity.” The State Idea. Spec. issue of GeoJournal 43.1 (1997): 41-50.

Pike, Graham. “Global Education and National Identity: In Pursuit of Meaning.” Global Education: Viewed from around the World. Spec. issue of Theory into Practice 39.2 (2000): 64-73.

Postman, Neil & Weingartner, Charles, Teaching as a Subversive Activity. New York: Delta, 1969.

Pylkkänen, Anu. “Transformation of the Nordic Model: From Welfare Politics to Gendered Rights.” Canadian Journal of Women and the Law 19.2 (2007): 335-354.

Rinehart, Robert. “Finland’s European Vocation.” The Scandinavian Way to Europe. Spec. issue of Scandinavian Studies 74.3 (Fall 2002): 427-440.

Rinne, Risto, Joel Kivirauma, and Hannu Simola. “Shoots of Revisionist Education Policy or Just Slow Readjustment? The Finnish Case of Educational Reconstruction.” Journal of Education Policy 17.6 (2002): 643-658.

Ropo, E. and Välijärvi, J. “School-Based Curriculum in Finland,” in School as Curriculum Agencies. Eds. E. Law and N. Nieveen. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2010. 197-216.

Ross, Alistair. “Multiple Identities and Education for Active Citizenship.” British Journal of Educational Studies 55.5 (2007): 286-303. PDF file.

Rorty, Amelie, The Identities of Persons. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.

Sahlberg, Pasi. “Education Policies for Raising Student Learning: the Finnish Approach.” Journal of Education Policy 22.2 (2007): 147-171. PDF file.

-----. Finnish Lessons 2.0: What Can the World Learn from Educational Change in Finland? New York: Teachers College Press, 2014.

-----. “A short history of educational reform in Finland.” 2009. PDF File.

Sartori, Giovanni. “Understanding Pluralism.” Journal of Democracy 8.4 (1997): 58-69.

Shachar, Ayelet. “On Citizenship and Mulicultural Vulnerability,” Political Theory 28 (2000): 64-89.

Siegel, Harvey, ed., The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Education. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2009.

Siikala, Jukka. “The Ethnography of Finland.” Annual Review of Anthropology 35 (2006): 153-170. PDF file.

Smagorinsky, Peter. “Towards a Civic Education in a Multicultural Society: Ethical Problems in Teaching Literature.” English Education 24.4 (1992): 212-228. PDF file.

Song, Sarah. "Multiculturalism." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ed. Edward Zalta. Stanford University, Spring 2014 Edition. Web. 3 May 2015.

Stavro, Elaine. “Rethinking Identity and Coalition Politics, Insights from Simone de Beauvior.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 40.2 (2007): 439-463.

Stryker, Sheldon and Peter J Burke. "The Past, Present, and Future of an Identity Theory." Social Psychology Quarterly 63.4 (2000): 284–297.

Tampio, Nicholas. "Multiplicity." Encyclopedia of Political Theory. SAGE Publications, 30 Aug 2010. Web. 3 May 2015.

Taussig, Karen-Sue. Ordinary Genomes. Duke: Duke UP, 2009.

Tiilikainen, Teija. “A Nordic Identity in European Security: Does It Exist?” Irish Studies in International Affairs 9 (1998): 51-54.

Virta, Arja. “Citizen’s alternatives for participation in Finnish social studies textbooks for compulsory and senior secondary schools,” in Ross, A. (ed) Teaching Citizenship. London: CiCe (2005): 481-486.

Virta, Arja and Marjaana Virta. “What to Change – How to Have Influence? Children’s Ideas About Exercising Power and Participating.” Journal of Social Science Education 14.2 (2014): 81-91.

Weinstock, John. “Assimilation of the Sámi: Its Unforeseen Effects on the Majority Populations of Scandinavia.” Scandinavian Studies 85.4 (Winter 2013): 411-430.

Wilcox, Shelley. “Cultural, National Identity, and Admission to Citizenship.” Social Theory and Practice 30.4 (2004): 559-582.

Wodak, Ruth, Rudolf de Cillia, Martin Reisigl, and Karin Liebhart, The Discursive Construction of National Identity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2009.

Wright, Matthew, Jack Citrin, and Jonathan Wand. “Alternative Measures of American National Identity: Implications for the Civic-Ethnic Distinction.” Political Psychology 11.4 (2012): 469-482.

Zhang, Xudong.“Multiplicity or Homogeneity? The Cultural-Political Paradox of the Age of Globalization.” Cultural Critique 58 (Fall 2004): 30-55. 

After the service in the Turun tuomiokirkko / Turku / 5 Apr 2016

After the service in the Turun tuomiokirkko / Turku / 5 Apr 2016